NEW DELHI: While the Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly, January 26, 1950 was chosen as the day it would come into effect. Here is why…
The history of the date January 26, goes back to the pre-independence era when the freedom fighters were struggling for independence. During the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in 1929, the party took the resolution of Poorna Swaraj or complete independence. Congress declared to observe January 26, 1930 as the total independence or Purna Swaraj Day.
Since 1950, January 26 has marked the day India’s Constitution came into effect.
The Constitution of India, which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, came into effect on January 26, 1950. This completed India's movement towards becoming an independent republic with a democratic government system.
Notably, on 29 August 1947, a resolution was moved for the appointment of the Drafting Committee, which was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, with Dr B R Ambedkar as chairman.
While India's Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates the coming into force of its constitution. A draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Constituent Assembly on 4 November 1947.
The 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950 after many contemplations and some moderation. Two days later which was on 26 January 1950, it came into effect throughout the whole nation. On that day, Dr Rajendra Prasad's became the first president of India. The Constituent Assembly became the Parliament of India under the transitional provisions of the new law.